Since march Future Generation Computer Systems has made available (online) our paper entitled “A multi-dimensional job scheduling”. This work is the result of a collaboration with the research group led by Prof. Lucio Grandinetti (University of Calabria, Italy) and it can be accessed here.
With the advent of new computing technologies, such as cloud computing and contemporary parallel processing systems, the building blocks of computing systems have become multi-dimensional. Traditional scheduling systems based on a single-resource optimization, like processors, fail to provide near optimal solutions. The efficient use of new computing systems depends on the efficient use of several resource dimensions. Thus, the scheduling systems have to fully use all resources. In this paper, we address the problem of multi-resource scheduling via multi-capacity bin-packing. We propose the application of multi-capacity-aware resource scheduling at host selection layer and queuing mechanism layer of a scheduling system. The experimental results demonstrate performance improvements of scheduling in terms of waittime and slowdown metrics.
At the beginning of 2016 the Journal of Computer Physics Communications (Elsevier, JCR:3.122, Q1) will close a Special Issue in which I’m very honored to serve as Guest Editor. You may be interested in the following Call for Papers.
Supercomputers are rapidly evolving as advances in architecture and semiconductor technology. High performance computing has been applied to accelerate the advanced modeling and simulation of materials. The current trend will provide challenges in parallelism because of increased processing units, accelerators, complex hierarchical memory systems, interconnection networks, storage and uncertainties in programming models. The interdisciplinary collaboration is becoming more and more important in high performance computation. Realistic material modeling and simulation need to combine material modeling methods, mathematical models, parallel algorithms and tools for exploiting supercomputers effectively.
Topics include but are not limited to:
- Numerical methods and parallel algorithms for the advanced modeling and simulation of materials
- Use of hardware accelerators (MIC, GPUs, FPGA) and heterogeneous hardware in computational material science
- Mathematical modeling and high performance computing tools in large-scale material simulation
- Programming model for material algorithm scalability and resilience
- Visualization on material data
- Multi-scale modeling and simulation in materials science
- Performance modeling and auto-tuning methods in material simulation
- Big data of materials science
- Accelerate dissipative particle dynamics by hardware accelerators
- Large-scale material modeling based on the new features of message passing programming model
Submission Format and Guideline
All submitted papers must be clearly written in excellent English and contain only original work, which has not been published by or is currently under review for any other journal or conference. Papers must not exceed 25 pages (one-column, at least 11pt fonts) including figures, tables, and references. A detailed submission guideline is available as “Guide to Authors” at: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/computer-physics-communications/
All manuscripts and any supplementary material should be submitted through Elsevier Editorial System (EES). The authors must select as “SI: CPC_HPCME 2015” when they reach the “Article Type” step in the submission process. The EES website is located at: http://ees.elsevier.com/cpc/
All papers will be peer-reviewed by three independent reviewers. Requests for additional information should be addressed to the guest editors.
Editors in Chief
N. Stanley. Scott
Jose Luis Vazquez-Poletti
Submission deadline: 2016.1.20
Acceptance deadline: 2016.4.20
At the end of June one of our recent works in collaboration with the Institute of Computing Technology from the Chinese Academy of Sciences was presented at the 35th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing systems (ICDS 2015), which took place at Columbus (Ohio, USA). The paper can be accessed here.
Large-scale interactive services usually divide requests into multiple sub-requests and distribute them to a large number of server components for parallel execution. Hence the tail latency (i.e. the slowest component’s latency) of these components determines the overall service latency. On a cloud platform, each component shares and competes node resources such as caches and I/O bandwidths with its co-located jobs, hence inevitably suffering from their performance interference.
In this paper, we study the short-running jobs in a 12k-node Google cluster to illustrate the dynamic resource demands of these jobs, resulting in both individual components’ latency variability over time and across different nodes and hence posing a major challenge to maintain low tail latency. Given this motivation, this paper introduces a dynamic and interference-aware scheduler for large-scale, parallel cloud services. At each scheduling interval, it collects workload and resource contention information of a running service, and predicts both the component latency on different nodes and the overall service performance. Based on the predicted performance, the scheduler identifies straggling components and conducts near-optimal component-node allocations to adapt to the changing workloads and performance interferences. We demonstrate that, using realistic workloads, the proposed approach achieves significant reductions in tail latency compared to the basic approach without scheduling.
Next week I’ll be in Karlsruhe (Germany) for this year’s GridKa School edition. This event takes place in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology since 2003.
If two years ago I gave a talk, this time my participation will be double.
Talk: From Mars to Earth through Cloud Computing
Our society has benefited from Space exploration in many ways. Many of the inventions we use nowadays have their origin in or have been improved by Space research. Computer Science is not an exception.
This talk will introduce the application of Cloud Computing done by me in the context of different Mars missions: Mars MetNet (Spain-Russia-Finland), MSL Curiosity (NASA) and ExoMars2016 (ESA). The achieved know-how allowed the optimization of other areas on Planet Earth, such as weather forecast and agricultural wireless sensor networks processing.
Tutorial: HPCCloud 101, HPC on Cloud Computing for newcomers
Never been into Cloud Computing before? Do you think that an extra computing power is crucial for your research? Do you have some neat parallel codes that your institution doesn’t allow you to execute because the cluster is full? Maybe this tutorial is for you!
The tutorial will cover the following topics:
As Virtual Clusters deployed by StarCluster have Sun Grid Engine and OpenMPI installed you are more than welcome to bring your own codes and give them a try!
This paper describes the GridWay metascheduler and exposes its latest and future developments, mainly related to interoperability and interoperation. GridWay enables large-scale, reliable, and efficient sharing of computing resources over grid middleware. To favor interoperability, it shows a modular architecture based on drivers, which access middleware services for resource discovery and monitoring, job execution and management, and file transfer. This paper presents two new execution drivers for Basic Execution Service (BES) and Computing Resource Execution and Management (CREAM) services and introduces a remote BES interface for GridWay. This interface allows users to access GridWay’s job metascheduling capabilities, using the BES implementation of GridSAM. Thus, GridWay now provides to end users more possibilities of interoperability and interoperation.
More information in the article:
Ismael Marín Carrión, Eduardo Huedo and Ignacio M. Llorente: Interoperating grid infrastructures with the GridWay metascheduler, Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, Volume 27, Issue 9, June 2015, Pages 2278-2290, ISSN 1532-0634, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpe.2971.
Last week the 12th ACM International Conference on Computing Frontiers (CF’15) took place in Ischia (Italy). There our paper entitled “SARP: producing approximate results with small correctness losses for cloud interactive services” was presented. This work is a result of the collaboration with the Institute of Computing Technology from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which started during my latest research stay there.
Despite the importance of providing fluid responsiveness to user requests for interactive services, such request processing is very resource expensive when dealing with large-scale input data. These often exceed the application owners’ budget when services are deployed on a cloud, in which resources are charged in monetary terms. Providing approximate processing results is a feasible solution for such problem that trades off request correctness (quantified by output quality) for response time reduction. However, existing techniques in this area either use partial input data or skip expensive computations to produce approximate results, thus resulting in large losses in output quality on a tight resource budget.
In this paper, we propose SARP, a Synopsis-based Approximate Request Processing framework to produce approximate results with small correctness losses even using small amount of resources. To achieve this, SARP conducts full computations over the statistical aggregation of the entire input data using two key ideas:
- Offline synopsis management that generates and maintains a set of synopses that represent the statistical aggregation of original input data at different approximation levels.
- Online synopsis selection that considers both the current resource allocation and the workload status so as to select the synopsis with the maximal length that can be processed within the required response time. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by testing the recommendation services in E-commerce sites using a large, real-world dataset.
Using prediction accuracy as the output quality, the results demonstrate:
- SARP achieves significant response time reduction with very small quality losses compared to the exact processing results.
- Using the same processing time, SARP demonstrates a considerable reduction in quality loss compared to existing approximation techniques.
The International Journal of Cloud Applications and Computing has just published our paper entitled “Cost-Effective Resource Configurations for Multi-Tenant Database Systems in Public Clouds”. This work is the result of a collaboration with Prof. Patrick Martin‘s research group (Queen’s University, Canada).
Cloud computing is a promising paradigm for deploying applications due to its large resource offerings on a pay-as-you-go basis. This paper examines the problem of determining the most cost-effective provisioning of a multi-tenant database system as a service over public clouds. The authors formulate the problem of resource provisioning, and then define a framework to solve it. Their framework uses heuristic based algorithms to select cost-effective configurations. The algorithms can optionally balance resource costs against penalties incurred from the violation of Service Level Agreements (SLAs) or opt for non SLA violating configurations. The specific resource demands on the virtual machines for a workload and SLAs are accounted for by the performance and cost models, which are used to predict performance and expected cost respectively. The work validates our approach experimentally using workloads based on standard TPC database benchmarks in the Amazon EC2 cloud.
Current systems based on pilot jobs are not exploiting all the scheduling advantages that the technique offers, or they lack compatibility or adaptability. To overcome the limitations or drawbacks in existing approaches, this study presents a different general-purpose pilot system, GWpilot. This system provides individual users or institutions with a more easy-to-use, easy-to-install, scalable, extendable, flexible and adjustable framework to efficiently run legacy applications. The framework is based on the GridWay meta-scheduler and incorporates the powerful features of this system, such as standard interfaces, fair-share policies, ranking, migration, accounting and compatibility with diverse infrastructures. GWpilot goes beyond establishing simple network overlays to overcome the waiting times in remote queues or to improve the reliability in task production. It properly tackles the characterisation problem in current infrastructures, allowing users to arbitrarily incorporate customised monitoring of resources and their running applications into the system. This functionality allows the new framework to implement innovative scheduling algorithms that accomplish the computational needs of a wide range of calculations faster and more efficiently. The system can also be easily stacked under other software layers, such as self-schedulers. The advanced techniques included by default in the framework result in significant performance improvements even when very short tasks are scheduled.
More information in the article:
A.J. Rubio-Montero, E. Huedo, F. Castejón, R. Mayo-García, GWpilot: Enabling multi-level scheduling in distributed infrastructures with GridWay and pilot jobs, Future Generation Computer Systems, Volume 45, April 2015, Pages 25-52, ISSN 0167-739X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2014.10.003.
Pull-based late-binding overlays are used in some of today’s largest computational grids. Job agents are submitted to resources with the duty of retrieving real workload from a central queue at runtime. This helps overcome the problems of these complex environments: heterogeneity, imprecise status information and relatively high failure rates. In addition, the late job assignment allows dynamic adaptation to changes in grid conditions or user priorities. However, as the scale grows, the central assignment queue may become a bottleneck for the whole system. This article presents a distributed scheduling architecture for late-binding overlays, which addresses this issue by letting execution nodes build a distributed hash table and delegating job matching and assignment to them. This reduces the load on the central server and makes the system much more scalable and robust. Scalability makes fine-grained scheduling possible and enables new functionalities, like the implementation of a distributed data cache on the execution nodes, which helps alleviate the commonly congested grid storage services.
More information in the article:
Delgado Peris, A.; Hernandez, J.M.; Huedo, E., “Distributed scheduling and data sharing in late-binding overlays,” High Performance Computing & Simulation (HPCS), 2014 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.129,136, 21-25 July 2014.
The European Space Agency’s Gaia mission will create the largest and most precise three dimensional chart of our galaxy (the Milky Way), by providing unprecedented position, parallax, proper motion, and radial velocity measurements for about one billion stars. The resulting catalog will be made available to the scientific community and will be analyzed in many different ways, including the production of a variety of statistics. The latter will often entail the generation of multidimensional histograms and hypercubes as part of the precomputed statistics for each data release, or for scientific analysis involving either the final data products or the raw data coming from the satellite instruments.
In this paper we present and analyze a generic framework that allows the hypercube generation to be easily done within a MapReduce infrastructure, providing all the advantages of the new Big Data analysis paradigm but without dealing with any specific interface to the lower level distributed system implementation (Hadoop). Furthermore, we show how executing the framework for different data storage model configurations (i.e. row or column oriented) and compression techniques can considerably improve the response time of this type of workload for the currently available simulated data of the mission.
In addition, we put forward the advantages and shortcomings of the deployment of the framework on a public cloud provider, benchmark against other popular solutions available (that are not always the best for such ad-hoc applications), and describe some user experiences with the framework, which was employed for a number of dedicated astronomical data analysis techniques workshops.
More information in the article:
D. Tapiador, W. O’Mullane, A.G.A. Brown, X. Luri, E. Huedo, P. Osuna, A framework for building hypercubes using MapReduce, Computer Physics Communications, Volume 185, Issue 5, May 2014, Pages 1429-1438, ISSN 0010-4655, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpc.2014.02.010.